Geología (trabajo de grado)

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  • Ítem
    Migración del río Putumayo sector Puerto El Carmen, Ecuador
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Cabrera Capera, Facnory; Restrepo Ángel, Juan Darío
  • Ítem
    Aprendizaje automático para la identificación mineralógica de material particulado - Bogotá, Cali y Valle de Aburrá (Colombia)
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Gutiérrez Silva, Juan Alberto; Duque Trujillo, José Fernando
    Identifying the mineral components present in particulate matter can be of great help to understand the dynamics of air pollution, especially to detect the presence of minerals that are dangerous for inhalation (such as asbestos). In this work is developed a methodology for the clustering of chemical data obtained through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) in samples located in Bogota, Cali and Valle de Aburrá (Colombia). Rausch et al. (2022) and Avellaneda et al. (2020) develop and apply a methodology based on random forest algorithms to separate categories of particles, including minerals. In this work, a generalized algorithm based on DBSCAN is proposed as a complement. It allowed to analyze a set of 3716 samples previously classified as "mineral". The results reveal the presence of at least 15 different minerals. Despite a relatively low classification effectiveness (~20%), this work represents a significant advance in this area, as precedents are few or non-existent for this type of application. It is notable, also, that the presence of Serpentine (Antigorite variety) was detected in Medellín. The findings of this study reveal that most of the particles correspond to quartz, calcite, kaolinite and plagioclase. Despite the limitations, the algorithm demonstrates its effectiveness in mineral identification. However, improvements that could increase its accuracy are recognized. Overall, this study establishes a starting point for future chemical characterization analyses of particulate matter.
  • Ítem
    Vulnerabilidad intrínseca a la contaminación del Sistema Acuífero del Altiplano Nariñense aplicando el método GOD
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Patarroyo Barragán, Laura Lucía; Enríquez Hidalgo, Laura Sofía; Jaramillo Uribe, Marcela
    The capacity of an aquifer to be contaminated depends on its intrinsic properties, that is the possibility of substances entering on it, due to hydraulic properties of the overlying lithology. The main cause of contamination is given by anthropogenic activities on the surface. The Altiplano Nariñense Aquifer System (SAAN) is influenced by geomorphological features that allow the recharge of the system, from this, it was proposed that the infiltration of polluting loads is correlated with the topography. To estimate vulnerability, geological, hydrogeological information and water points sampled in 2005-2006 were collected, which allowed us to apply the GOD method that involves three parameters related to the type of aquifer, lithology of the unsaturated zone and depth of groundwater. Three of the five vulnerability indices proposed by this method were evident, associated to the classification “very low”, “medium” and “high”, where medium vulnerability predominates with 51.09% of the total area. Because the main use of land in the Altiplano Nariñense (AN) is for agriculture and this activity requires agrochemicals, there is a probability that these are the main contaminants, and it is also evident that a part of the surface water system has a high index of potential alteration of water quality and its interaction with the aquifer system would also contribute to the dispersion of contaminants. The result was compared with the vulnerability map with the land cover map in the AN, which indicates that 88.44% is destinated to agricultural territories.
  • Ítem
    Agrogeología del silicio : comprensión de los materiales geológicos y la formación de suelos para el fortalecimiento de la agricultura
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Barrientos Acevedo, Iván Andrés; Hernández Pérez, María Isabel
    The characteristics of silicon fertilizers depend on aspects related to their raw materials, manufacturing process, physical presentation and chemical composition. It is evident that the application of silicon in agriculture generates significant benefits for plants by improving their resistance to biotic and abiotic stress, and enhancing the absorption of essential nutrients. These products are primarily derived from inorganic silicates, extracted in their mineral forms and processed to convert them into soluble forms, which, when added to the soil, become silicic acid, a bioavailable source for plants. The stability of silicon fertilizers is a critical aspect, and their effectiveness may vary depending on soil conditions and the type of crop. The edaphological heterogeneity in Colombia, with various soil types and climatic conditions, creates a favorable environment for the cultivation of silicon-accumulating plants, such as rice, sugarcane, corn, wheat, cassava, potatoes, soybeans, and sugar beets. Understanding the mechanisms of silicon absorption and transportation, the appropriate choice of fertilizers, and the edaphological variability in agricultural production are key factors in the effective application of silicon for the benefit of agriculture.
  • Ítem
    Aplicación de técnicas geoeléctricas como alternativa para la caracterización de zonas afectadas por alteración hidrotermal en la Formación Amagá
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Mosquera Arango, Sebastián; Velásquez Ospina, Miguel; Gómez Gutiérrez, Diego Felipe
  • Ítem
    Caracterización petrológica con énfasis en microestructuras aplicado a rocas milonitizadas a la altura de la quebrada Sinifaná – Antioquia
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Calero Castaño, Julián Armando; Duque Trujillo, José Fernando
    The petrographic analysis and microstructural characteristics allow us to know in greater detail the mineralogy, alterations and structures associated with tectonic processes that affect the minerals in the rock. The present work is located near the village of Bolombo, on the right bank of the Sinifaná stream, and inside a tributary stream of the basin. Here we observe the development of a shear zone that affects the Sabaletas Schists and places them in contact with the Quebradagrande Complex. In order to understand this shear zone, a mineralogical characterization was carried out, based on petrography with emphasis on the microstructures, defining a protomylonite, which involves rock fragments and disaggregated minerals of quartz and plagioclase, fractured with microfaulting and a diversity in the porphyroclasts, S'-C type microstructures and recrystallization processes, which allowed estimating possible evolutionary environments, as well as offering a correlation with the lineament proposed by Peláez (2020) where the present shear zone is developed, related to the Cauca-Almaguer Fault System.
  • Ítem
    Detección de cambios en la cobertura vegetal para el municipio de Florencia, Caquetá
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Beltrán Rojas, Julitza; Ramírez Rojas, María Isabel
  • Ítem
    Geoconservación en la Laguna de La Cocha y el Valle de Sibundoy : "un enfoque integral para la gestión territorial"
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Erazo Sánchez, Ángela Sofía; Vásquez Beltrán, Paula Viviana; Montoya Londoño, Nicolás; Marín Cerón, María Isabel
  • Ítem
    Caracterización geoquímica y mineralógica de esmeraldas del Cinturón Esmeraldífero Oriental y Occidental como base para su diferenciación : caso de estudio : Chivor y Muzo (Colombia)
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Botero Soto, Camila; Gómez Gutiérrez, Diego Felipe
    Colombian emeralds, recognized worldwide for their gem quality, are found in the Eastern Cordillera, and are distributed along two prominent parallel belts: The Western Emerald Belt and the Eastern Emerald Belt, represented by the Muzo and Chivor mining districts, respectively. These emeraldiferous corridors were part of the Colombian Cretaceous sedimentary basin, which, under the influence of diverse geological parameters, managed to concentrate particular geochemical anomalies in each region, which allowed establishing criteria to differentiate both belts at a geochemical and mineralogical level. This work aims to define solid criteria to differentiate the Muzo and Chivor regions, providing information for the identification of the distinctive characteristics of these two important mining districts in Colombia.
  • Ítem
    Clasificación de las desembocaduras fluviales del Caribe colombiano usando el diagrama de Galloway cuantitativo
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Cuervo Cano, Angie Lisbet; Paniagua Arroyave, Juan Felipe
  • Ítem
    Los gonfoterios de Soatá, Boyacá
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Valencia Sánchez, Samuel; Carrillo, Juan David
    Proboscideans were part of the megafauna that habited South American ecosystems during the Pleistocene. Recent taxonomic revisions established that two species inhabited the continent. In Colombia, gomphothere fossils have been reported in the Andean and Caribbean regions, indicating a widespread distribution. Most remains are fragmentary however, and specific taxonomic assignations are not possible. In this study new gomphothere remains from the Soatá Formation in the Eastern Cordillera are described. According to the morphometric and anatomical features, it is proposed that the gomphothere species that inhabited the Chicamocha Canyon region during the Late Pleistocene corresponds to Notiomastodon platensis, supporting the hypothesis that Andean valleys functioned as migratory corridors for Pleistocene megafauna.
  • Ítem
    Análisis de las evidencias de migración del magmatismo de arco en el occidente colombiano durante el Cretácico Superior
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) Alzate Giraldo, María Fernanda; Bustamante Londoño, Camilo
    Along the Western Cordillera are located rocks of oceanic affinity to the west, and rocks of continental affinity to the east, separated by the Romeral Fault System, as a product of interactions between the Caribbean, Farallon, and South American plates. These rocks present ages ranging from Upper Cretaceous to the Lower Paleogene, implying that the formation of these plutonic igneous bodies occurred simultaneously, originated from two distinct magmatic arcs. The tectonic evolution of this zone is not fully clear yet, as two geological models are proposed where there are two subduction environments of different spatial distribution, due to some authors suggest that both subductions are dipping to the east, while others suggest that one of them is dipping to the west. Rodríguez et al. (2023) propose that, through the study of crystallization ages of igneous bodies in the Western Cordillera, there was a subduction migration event during the Upper Cretaceous, and because of this, they suggest that the distribution of both subductions is towards the east. This study includes analyses that demonstrate that the conditions at this time were not favorable for the occurrence of such event.
  • Ítem
    Zonificación de la infiltración potencial y líneas de flujo en el play geotérmico Sibundoy
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2023) López Zuluaga, Antonio; Montoya Londoño, Nicolás; Marín Cerón, María Isabel
  • Ítem
    Comparación de enfoques metodológicos para la estimación de la geodiversidad. Caso de estudio : Cuenca del río Churimo, San Rafel, Antioquia
    (Universidad Eafit, 2023) Navarro Jaramillo, Vanessa; Montoya Londoño, Nicolás
    Geodiversity is a general term to define the geological diversity of a territory and is understood as the variety of geological features present in a place that are identified considering their frequency, distribution and the geological evolution they illustrate. Different methodologies have been identified for its estimation, where for the purposes of this work, the general objective is to compare and characterize two methodologies used in the Regional Geology and Geoconservation Workshop of EAFIT to make a contribution to the selection of a methodology with less subjectivity and uncertainty. The comparison is made between the Valentin Method (2021) and the Valentin Method (2021) modified with morphometric indices of Argyriu et al., (2016). The study area corresponds to the Churimo River Basin, in San Rafael, Antioquia, where from an analysis of variance between the normalized surfaces obtained from both methods, the most important areas associated with the evolution of the granitic landscape of eastern Antioquia were identified considering validation points collected in the field. As the most relevant result, a categorization proposal is obtained based on statistical normalization, where the zones with the highest geodiversity are associated with points of high tourist interest around the Churimo River and its main tributaries. Finally, the limitations of each of the methodologies are highlighted to continue promoting the knowledge of geodiversity, and the optimal processing of the information that allows an increasingly accurate approximation with the real expression within a territory.
  • Ítem
    Sedimentary signatures in Jambaló Blueschist : Tectonic implications
    (Universidad Eafit, 2023) Rodríguez Arango, Daniel; Bustamante Londoño, Camilo
    The aim of this contribution is to analyze the sedimentary influence on the protoliths that gave rise to the blue schists of Jambaló, Cauca, Colombia, through the detailed identification of their mineralogical and structural characteristics. The hypothesis posits that the protolith of the Jambaló blue schists exhibits significant signs of a sedimentary component, which may reflect the proximity of an oceanic arc to the western margin of South America during the Cretaceous period. Fieldwork and petrographic analyses were conducted to characterize the blue and green schists in the area. Previous geochemical data were also reanalyzed. The results indicate that both types of schists share a common origin but followed distinct metamorphic paths. Geochemistry suggests a mixture of pelagic and terrigenous sediments in the protoliths, with a higher proportion of pelagic sediments. This supports the hypothesis of the proximity of an oceanic arc that accumulated these sediments. In conclusion, the Jambaló blue schists represent a metamorphic belt distinct from those previously proposed for the region. Their protoliths reflect the approach of an intra-oceanic arc to the continental margin during the Cretaceous.
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