ÍtemMeritocracy: China's form of democracy(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-17) Jiménez Arcila, Juliana; Universidad EAFITThis article illustrates China’s meritocracy in light of political, social and cultural differences accounting both for Western and Eastern standards thought to define political systems and governmental regimes. It also shows the factors that make meritocracy a potential “democracy” with Chinese characteristics, explaining the elements of meritocracy throughout history together with the roots of the system in the country. In the process, the article defines both meritocracy and democracy and presents certain factors that may suggest that meritocracy can -for now- be acknowledged as a democracy even when it does not fully agree with Western standards. Throughout academia it is understood that there is no single form of democracy and that each country adapts the system to its own characteristics; making it possible that Chinese meritocracy -with the cultural shifts made- can be better comprehended and accepted as one of these primary forms of democracy. ÍtemJapan: Japanese Cultural Promotion for Economic Development(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-17) Arguelles Gómez, Isabel; Universidad EAFITSoft Power is a strategy used by Japan since the Meiji restoration to position themselves domestically and internationally. Since the 70’s the government incorporates its cultural component as the fundamental tool to influence the actions of international actors. This has allowed the country to project a positive image, transforming its image into economic benefits. The objective of this essay is to analyze the promotion of the Japanese culture as a strategy of Soft Power for the economic development of the country. The paper will discuss Japan´s dedication to cultural and public diplomacy to project its image of a peaceful nation to improve the commercial relationship with its Asian neighbors. The use of Cool Japan for product promotion, tourism, and investment will be discussed later. It will end by examining how the government has reinforced traditional Japanese identity to project itself as an exemplary culture. ÍtemStained Supply Chains(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-17) Vásquez Martínez, Laura Isabel; Universidad EAFITNowadays the fashion industry has impressive proportions. Production volumes have increased at an accelerated rhythm within the last 20 years. The pressure for costs’ reduction and the desire of the consumers to acquire every time more clothing has led to the enterprises to engage in stained pro-duction processes. Exploitation of the employees and environmental pollution are involved in their practices. This essay aims to expose labor conditions that this industrial sector offers in the Asian continent, mainly in China and India. It concludes that workers’ abuse is intrinsically present in the productive stage of the fashion supply chain. ÍtemDistribution methods of Chinese vehicles in the Pacific Alliance countries(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-17) Regalado-Pezua, Otto; Montoyav Bayardo, Miguel Angel; Zapata Pezúa, Gabriel Arnldo; Universidad ESAN; Tecnólogo de Monterrey, Campus GuadalajaraWhen the Chinese automotive industry decided to expand into the western market, it had to evaluate the best alternative for marketing its brands in the segmented and selected markets, including the countries that form the Pacific Alliance. This article, based mainly on secondary sources, develops, on the one hand, through a conceptual approach, the distribution methods implemented by automotive brands in general, and on the other hand, through an applied approach, the distribution strategies of the four Chinese brands that were selected —Changan, Great Wall, JAC, and BAIC— in the markets of Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. ÍtemExport of textiles and garments made from recycled PET and cotton to South Korea(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-17) Montoya Gómez, Tomás; Universidad EAFITIn the framework of the international cooperation between Colombia and South Korea, this study aims to assess the opportunity for Colombian producers of textiles and garments made with PET and recycled cotton to export to South Korea; Along with the environmental, social, and economic problems experienced by the fashion industry, coupled with the trend of the new generations who prefer responsible consumption and encourage the question that is the basis of this study, a mixed research methodology was used. It was required to work mainly with the analysis of the information collected, such as market data, interviews with producers, and consumer studies. In addition, some recommendations are made to textile producers with a view to exporting to this country, and the behavior of consumers in this market is also studied through literature review and marketing studies. Ítem5G technology: Is it a determinant in the dispute for global economic hegemony between China and the United States in the 21st century?(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-17) Díaz González, Tania Anahí; González García, Juan; Licona Michel, Ángel; Universidad de Colima; Universidad de Colima; Universidad de ColombiaThe fifth generation (5G) technology is currently the latest manifestation of scientific and technological development in the world, which is impacting the economic, political, and international relations and the national and international security of countries. So far, China has led its implementation, which has lead it to acquire a relevant role in world governance to such an extent that it has given rise to a confrontation with the United States in the context of the dispute for global economic hegemony. The hypothesis of the text is that the progress made by China in 5G technology will be a catalyst for it to be positioned as the first global economic power. The article analyzes the characteristics of 5G technology and its importance in China and the world; it also reviews the race toward technological supremacy, recognizing the role of 5G in the key sectors of China’s economic positioning in the global economy, which will ultimately enable its rise and predominance in the direct battle with the United States. ÍtemThe Nineteenth-Century Anglo-Indian Opium Trade to China and its Lasting Legacy(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-17) García Marcano, Elisa Sofía; Universidad EAFITIn recent years, two apparently different and unconnected problems have received repeated attention from global news outlets, namely the opioid crisis and the pro-democracy movement in Hong Kong. The opioid crisis, which is especially catastrophic in the United States, involves the over-prescription and abuse of synthetic opioid painkillers such as oxycontin and fentanyl (Felter, 2020). The pro-democracy movement in Hong Kong involves legions of pro-testers, many of them university students, taking to the streets against what they see as the erosion of their civil liberties at the hands of the mainland Chinese government (Perper, 2019). How can these two issues possibly be connected? This paper tells the story of how the world’s first great opioid crisis occurred in nineteenth-century China, and how the drug trafficking British thwarted the Chinese government’s attempts to stop drug imports, fighting two wars in the process. Upon conclusion of the first of these wars, China was forced to cede the territory of Hong Kong. This British colonial outpost became the principle entrepôt for British opium entering the Chinese market. Over the next century and a half, Hong Kong grew into one of the world’s most dynamic commercial cities, and its citizens enjoyed liberties under British rule that were not available to the mainland Chinese population. Thus, the legacy of the opium wars and the British opium trade to China is still very much with us today. ÍtemSouth Korea’s lift-off to development: The role of Human Capital and Productivity in economic growth, 1960-1979(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-17) Quiero Aguirre, Francisco Javier; CUEBAll generators of the optimal algebra associated with a generalization of the Endem-Fowler equation are showed; some of them allow to give invariant solutions. Variational symmetries and the respective conservation laws are also showed. Finally, a representation of Lie symmetry algebra is showed by groups of matrices. South Korea is a case of impressive economic growth: a previously underdeveloped country that, after the 1960s, embarked on a process to achieve development before other underdeveloped countries. South Korea is also a case where innovation processes move from imitation to self-creation thanks to a quick updating or “catching up” process. South Korea’s journey from underdevelopment to development has sparked a rich and well-founded debate within economic theory. These debates weigh the roles of productive factors (Physical, Human, Social, and Financial Capital, Labor, resources, environment), economic agents (State, Firms, Banks), and international trade factors (FDI, Imports, Exports) on its growth process. The central argument of this article establishes that Capital is the central variable that explains the successful outcome of the Korean growth miracle. However, Capital composition is even more important. The impact of Human Capital on the growth process evinces a synergy with Knowledge development. We modify the Solow model using Human, Physical Capital, and Total Factor Productivity as independent variables in a Multivariable Regression Model for the period between 1960 and 1979 on Output per worker. We conclude that Human Capital and Productivity are just as important as Physical Capital for explaining growth per worker in South Korea due their synergistic properties. The study is restricted to the years prior to Park Chung-Hee’s rise to power and ends with his assassination.