ÍtemPolitical economy of media: An income-expense analysis of state aids to Iranian newspapers(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-28) Khajeheian, Datis; Jafari, Abbas; Abdolhossein, Habid; Hgaderifar, Esmaeil; Universidad de Teherán en Teherán, Irán; Universidad de Teherán en Teherán, Irán; Universidad de Teherán en Teherán, Irán; Universidad de Teherán en Teherán, IránIranian newspapers have traditionally relied on state aids and public budget to survive. The dependency has still lingered amid a change of policy that has affected the newspapers’ financial status. This article invokes the available data on governmental support to examine the political economy of newspapers in Iran during the two decades of 1990s and 2000s. The data were collected from official releases by the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance as well as several nonconfidential internal bulletins of the newspaper organizations. Having applied an income-expense analysis, the paper explains the government’s role in newspaper economics and discusses the policy of repurposing the existing subsidies. ÍtemHow to compose a media mix to win an electoral campaign? proposing a framework for political marketing(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-28) Tajaddod Alizadeh, Mehrnaz; Reza Saeidabadi, Mohammad; Khajeheian, Datis; Universidad de Teherán, Teherán, Irán; Universidad de Teherán, Teherán, Irán; Universidad de Teherán, Teherán, IránThis article addresses the issue of composing different media to send an integrated message to the voters in electoral campaigns and presents a framework for managing media in political marketing. The authors conducted deep interviews with strategy developers of the past presidential elections as well as two parliamentary elections in Iran to extract the strategy development process for delivering the campaign message to the target audiences. thematic analysis used for analysis of data and interviews coded in three levels of open, axial and selective. The paper suggests a sequence of audience, message and media to launch a successful campaign within a framework that starts with campaign structure and strategy and accomplished with economic effectiveness measuring and success rate. ÍtemImpact of inter-organizational and extraorganizational factors on the policies of Science and Technology Parks in emerging economies(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-28) Esmaeelzadeh, Iman; Karimi Taranini, Mahboobeh; Tayebi, Amin; Kordbachen Roudhend, Farinaz; Universidad Islámica Azas, Irán; Universidad Allameh Tabataba'i, Teherán, Irán; Universidad de Ciencia y Tecnología de Irán, Teherán, Irán; Universidad Islámica Azad, IránThis article aims to study policymaking resulting from the impact of intra- and extra-organizational factors of science and technology parks (S&T parks). This article is classified as applied in terms of objective and quantitative in terms of data gathering. The population comprises senior managers of companies established in the five selected S&T parks, totaling 493. Applying the stratified random sampling method and the Cochran formula, the sample size was determined at 216. The validity of the questionnaire’s content was endorsed by professors, experts and pundits. The Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaire was extracted to be higher than endorsed levels in all dimensions, which shows the reliability of the research. Results show that intra-organizational factors (organizational, networking, legal and fiscal), with the intervention of extra-organizational factors (institutional, cultural and contextual, capital and location), lead to development of six S&T park policymaking categories (policymaking for culture and motivation, policymaking for creation of incentives, policymaking for development of capacity and capability, policymaking for infrastructure, policymaking for attracting investment, policymaking for creating business opportunities). ÍtemKnowledge Commercialization Framework: factors affecting developing countries(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-28) Zarea, Hadi; Esmaeelzadeh, Iman; Sadat Jafariyeh, Haniyeh; Buitek, Elvira; Aliei, Maryam; Universidad Laval de Quebec, Canadá; Universidad Islámica de Azad, Irán; Universidad de Teherán en Teherán, Irán; Universidad de Negocios Internacionales de Kazajistán; Universidad Payame NoorAmid economic pressure and inclination for independent financing, universities tend to commercialize knowledge, a growing trend emerging as an entry gate for the privatization of scientific advancements and the development and transfer of technology from universities. Numerous studies have been conducted on the commercialization of knowledge. This article aims to integrate previous studies and develop a comprehensive model out of the factors cited in those studies. Therefore, 57 relevant articles were analyzed to identify the indices of knowledge commercialization within the framework of a systematic review literature guideline. In addition to guideline validate criteria, three university professors were interviewed for conceptual model include the subjects (contextual, individual, organizational, institutional, and environmental), and components. ÍtemEntrepreneurial Use of Gamification for Knowledge Sharing inside Organization; A Public Service Media from Middle East(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-28) Soltani, Tohid; Labafi, Somayeh; Moghadamzadeh, Hadi; Salavatian, Siavash; Universidad IRIB, Irán; Intituto Iraní para la información, la Ciencia y la Tecnología, Irán; Universidad de Teherán, Aras Internacional Campues, Irán; Universidad IRIB, IránKnowledge as an organizational resource in media businesses has become increasingly important in a competitive environment. There is a growing interest in developing new techniques to enhance knowledge sharing between people, that is conducive to media entrepreneurs. One of the main barriers to knowledge sharing in communicating entrepreneurs is the lack of motivation which can be improved by using gamification. The aim of this research is to achieve a better understanding of the gamified knowledge sharing process to improve organizational entrepreneurship among TV employees. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 employees and managers of the IRIB organization. Qualitative analysis of the research data was conducted in three steps: transcribing data, coding and organizing categories. Most of IRIB’s employees inspired by intrinsic motivations include status, power, learning, autonomy, and community. Security is the only and most critical extrinsic motivation in IRIB organization. Moreover, we have found four categories of user types, namely achiever, socializer, discoverer, and survivor. Our study identified the main motivators of media staff that create a sense of happiness and motivation to participate in organizational entrepreneurship via knowledge sharing. Finally, we offer new insights about the media employees’ user types in the gamified knowledge sharing system. ÍtemKnowledge Management in the Age of Unreliable Messages. Do University Students Trust Online Messages? (A Survey from the Middle East)(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-28) Sabbar Shaho; Abdollahinezhad, Alireza; Heidari, Ako; Mohammadi, Fatemeh; Universidad de Teherán en Teherán, Irán; Universidad Allameh Tabataba'i; Universidad George Mason; Universidad Allameh Tabataba'iWe are exposed to a constant stream of messages many of which originate from unreliable or untrustworthy sources. Moreover, it is not possible to control the messages before they are published and allow the dissemination of the verified ones only. Growing a critical mind can be a practical way to prevent the accumulation of incorrect or inaccurate information in our brains. The current study tried to see whether or not university students hold a critical view of social media messages. First, in a qualitative study, hundreds of messages shared on social media were observed, 12 of which were chosen based on the popularity of their central themes. Many of the messages contained an extraordinary claim such as the existence of mermaids, human-like complex emotions in animals, etc. Then, in a survey, the chosen messages were shown to 379 university students. The respondents were asked to express their opinions about the messages. For each of the 12 messages, between 36 to 94 percent of the respondents just assumed the messages to be true. The analysis of the responses revealed weak critical thinking among the students. ÍtemThe influence of value co-creation on customer loyalty, behavioural intention, and customer satisfaction in emerging markets(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-28) Kamali, Mehran; Zarea, Hadi; Su, Zhan; Soltani, Saeideh; Universidad de Otago; Laval University, Quebec, Canada; Laval University, Quebec, Canada; University of Tehran, IranOne of the current major trends in the media industry is customer value co-creation. User participation can significantly affect news media organisations. This study examines the impact of value co-creation on the loyalty, satisfaction, and behavioural tendencies of media consumers, using a survey of users of My Fars news platform. The conceptual model of this study is developed and tested by using survey data from 283 users of the news campaign in Fars News and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is employed to simultaneously test the hypothesized relationships. The results show that user participation in value co-creation significantly affects their satisfaction, loyalty, and behavioural tendencies. ÍtemReconceptualizing opportunity construct: An answer to a theoretical dilemma through a systematic literature review(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-28) Yadolahi Farsi, Jahangir; Arabiun, Abolghasem; Akbar Farjadian, Ali; Universidad de Teherán en Teherán, Irán; Universidad de Teherán en Teherán, Irán; Universidad de Teherán en Teherán, IránAfter Shane’s seminal work in 2000 which highlighted the importance of entrepreneurial opportunities, the number of studies focusing on entrepreneurial opportunity increased rapidly. Different definitions of this concept were provided in the field, ranging from subjective to objective ones, which gave rise to a lack of consensus among researchers and this, in turn, was an obstacle that slowed down theorizing in entrepreneurship. Taking into account the past trends in management sciences, it seems to be the right moment to re-conceptualize the core construct of opportunity. The major critique of existing definitions is their operationalization. To provide a better operationalization, the present study aimed to offer a more accurate conceptual definition. To this end, the study first examined current debates on opportunity, which revealed the major problem causing the debates. Then, through a systematic literature review, from among more than seven thousand documents in the Scopus database containing opportunity keywords, 74 papers were selected following different phases of filtration. The papers were analyzed in detail to extract different constructs. Then, using the framework of Hansen et al, they were classified along six dimensions. The concepts under each dimension were examined to finally provide a bigger picture of the construct of opportunity and offer a re-conceptualization. The results of this study highlight the gaps for future research and pave the ground for other systematic literature reviews in the field. ÍtemScience and Technology Parks: Missions, Functions and Roles in high-tech Firms operating in emerging countries(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-28) Sadegh Khayatian, Mohammad; Universidad Shahid Beheshti, IránGiven the vital role of Science and Technology (S&T) Parks in SME development, this article aims to study function, missions and roles of these parks in developing Iranian SMEs. For those entrepreneurs and SMEs focused on commercializing science, these parks provide essential information and advice, as well as proper equipment and services to set the ground for growth and development and an effective and independent presence in today’s competitive market. In the first phase, literature reviewed and the functions of S&T Parks in previous research extracted. Then, the extracted missions were distributed among the experts in the form of Delphi questionnaire. Finally, after three rounds of Delphi questionnaire, the missions were finalized and the functions of each mission were operationally described based on the opinions of experts. ÍtemHow gender and age can affect consumer purchase behavior? Evidence from A microeconomic perspective from Hungary(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-11-29) Fekete-Farkas, Maria; Gholampour, Abbas; Bouzari, Parisa; Jarghooiyan, Hadi; Ebrahimi, Pejman; Universidad Húngara de Agricultura y Ciencias de la Vida (MATE); Laboratorio de Investigación e Innovación y emprendimiento; Universidad Húngara de Agricultura y Ciencias de la Vida (MATE); Universidad de Teherán en Teherán; Universidad Húngara de Agricultura y Ciencias de la Vida (MATE)The present study aimed to investigate the effect of demographic variables of gender and age on online consumer purchase behavior (CPB) on Facebook in Hungary. The statistical population of the present study consists of Facebook users in Hungary, including Hungarian natives, foreigners residing in this country including students. A sample of 433 online consumers in different age groups was surveyed. The questionnaire was shared via an online link on the Facebook platform and also on various channels. Welch’s t-test was used to examine the gender variable, and Welch and Brown-Forsythe test was used to examine the age variable. The results showed that there was a significant difference between CPB in all age groups and the age group of over 50 years on Facebook. This important result emphasized the importance and impact of social networks as marketing channels on young people. Another important point was the difference between the purchase behaviors of male and female consumers. The results from this research can have implications for businesses in developing their competitive advantages and adopting proper approaches in advertising and marketing campaigns based on the socio-demographic characteristics of people.