ÍtemAergia and Pasithea: toward a cosmogonic understanding of laziness in Ancient Greece(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Almeyda Sarmiento, Juan David; Universidad Industrial de SantaderThe present study aims to justify how laziness constitutes an intrinsic part of the human substance within cosmogony in Ancient Greece. To do so, the paper is divided into three parts. First, a brief explanation of what hard work implies is offered from its mythological personification: Horme. Second, skholè i s regarded as a concept in which laziness and contemplation converge in the direction of a reflective capacity based on inaction. Third, it is argued that Aergia and Pasithea are goddesses that provide the basis for considering laziness as an ontological category within human beings’ understanding of themselves. The latter, inasmuch as they are deities that are found within the human constitution before the skholè, which places them as fundamental for the study of leisure in Ancient Times. ÍtemPortrait: Image of man and the origin of art(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Vázquez Cuoto, David; Universidad de SalamancaSometimes, art theory addresses the same type of image from discursive disparity. This is the case of the portrait, whose imprecise definition complicates its conceptual and formal definition within the limits of the Western culture. Although this text does not intend to resolve doubts about one of the most significant questions in art—even the question of art, if portraits are born with it—it does attempt to show the difficulties in reaching an agreement on the conventions that define it, from its antecedents in Antiquity and its establishment in modern times, up to the advent of its contemporary crisis that some authors attribute to the saturation suffered by the image in mass society, and others, to the new artistic paradigm that is imposed from Impressionism onwards. ÍtemHow to live and how to write: The literaryphilosophical present of the Socratic question for the good life(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Pino-Posada, Juan Pablo; Universidad EAFITFor several decades, the question of the good life has gained relevance in university philosophical discourse. A striking phenomenon in this context is the publication of works that, created in academia itself, avoid sticking to the conventional scientific writing format and instead integrate literary strategies in their argumentative flow. Paradigmatic examples of this phenomenon are The Art of Living by Alexander Nehamas (1998); Four Meditations on Happiness (Das vollkommene Leben) by Michael Hampe (2009), and Human Dignity: A Way of Living (Eine Art zu Leben: Über die Vielfalt menschlicher Würde) by Peter Bieri (2013), works that until now have gone practically unnoticed in the Spanish-speaking world. The article aims to fill this gap in reception by tracing the interaction between the ethical concepts put forward in each of the three cases and the particular mode of exposure chosen, as well as by tracing the Socratic ancestry to which they appeal declaredly or tacitly. In addition, the thesis that the use of literary elements is a way of facing the modern neutrality of philosophy will be supported, with an emphasis on the authorial voice, when faced with the question of how to live. ÍtemCOVID-19: Phenomenology of fear and hermeneutics of solidarity in the plague of Athens and in the contemporary pandemic(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Vélez López, Germán Darío; Universidad EAFITThe main purpose of this article is to conduct an analysis of the current pandemic, attempting to locate basic layers of the phenomenon, in particular, the way its world is structured and the links of coexistence between individuals, taking as thread an element that analytics Heideggerian existentialism highlights as characteristic of man’s way of opening to the world: the emotional temper or affective disposition. To place this element and guide our questions, we will analyze Thucydides’ account of the plague that devastated Athens at the end of the fifth century BC. Starting with Thucydides’ indications, we will move toward the field of existential analytics to discover how worldly relations are defined in connection with the world from his approach. We are interested in showing how this emotional temper motivates a special transformation of the meaning of the virus responsible for the current pandemic, a transformation that leads us to consider its mutual (and not only parasitic) nature, which will ultimately and retroactively refer to a better determination of the human existence, as essentially linked to the other, as coexistence. ÍtemPolis and Dêmos. A reflection on ancient Greek democracy(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Vélez Upegui, Mauricio; Universidad EAFITThere are numerous cultural creations that the Greeks of Antiquity, and more specifically the Athenians, gave to themselves. One of them, related to the institution of social life, was democracy, understood in etymological terms as “power of the people.” In another sense, democracy can be described as a type of political system, or as a way of organizing the public powers of a city. Such an idea is derived from the brief Aristotelian treatise, discovered in Egypt more than a century ago, known as the Constitution of the Athenians. Relying on this treatise and establishing some relationships with other ancient and modern sources, the purpose of this writing is to advance a reflection on ancient Attic democracy, in order to point out three foundations of this form of government: political autonomy, participation, and “control.” ÍtemDangling dancers, vertebrae creak, Female suicide, and Greek tragedy(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Pájaro M., Carlos; Universidad del NorteBased on Nicole Loraux’s Tragic Ways of Killing a Woman, this article aims to present very different ways in which the death of a man and the death of a woman are thought of in a Greek polis. It seeks to emphasize the way in which the death of women is dramatized in Greek tragedy, a literary genre considered as a place where the border lines between the two ways of dying fade, albeit ambiguously. Based on this, some features of political anthropology are shown in which the ancient Greek understanding supports the diverse meanings of death in the field of problems examined, in function of the sex of the person who is to die. Therefore, the objective is not to propose or carry out neither a study that suggests argumentative lines in favor of an understanding of the tragic, nor an interpretative study about the essence of that great artistic fruit of the Greek spirit. ÍtemAristotle’s necessity and coincidences: An interpretation of Metaphysics VI 3 and XI 8(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Gómez Espíndola, Laura Liliana; Universidad del ValleThis article presents an interpretation of two disputed passages from Metaphysics VI 3 and XI 8 i n w hich Aristotle’s reasoning is aimed at avoiding universal necessity based on the existence of coincidences. This reasoning has given rise to multiple and incompatible interpretations from Antiquity to present day. In them, the Stagirite reasoning has been presented in a range that goes from understanding it as a position compatible with the strongest determinism, to one that requires a very general indeterminism. In dialog with these interpretations, a reading will be defended, according to which these assages are designed to argue not against causal determinism but against predetermination. ÍtemImage of the stars. The Epinomis and the central images of the Republic(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Flórez, Alfonso; Pontificia Universidad JaverianaA reading of the Epinomis dialogue is proposed within the context of the three central images of the Republic: the sun, the line and the cave. To do this, we start from the methodological assumption of the authenticity of the dialogue. A schematic summary of its main themes is then provided, according to which the three images of the Republic are explained. On these assumptions, the central thesis is argued: as a dialogue, the Epinomis is situated thematically, methodologically and interpretatively in the mathematical section of the line. In the conclusion it is argued that in this text the dialectic operates as an indication to the first intelligible realm.A reading of the Epinomis dialogue is proposed within the context of the three central images of the Republic: the sun, the line and the cave. To do this, we start from the methodological assumption of the authenticity of the dialogue. A schematic summary of its main themes is then provided, according to which the three images of the Republic are explained. On these assumptions, the central thesis is argued: as a dialogue, the Epinomis is situated thematically, methodologically and interpretatively in the mathematical section of the line. In the conclusion it is argued that in this text the dialectic operates as an indication to the first intelligible realm. ÍtemThe episode of the Sirens in Apollonius of Rhodes’ Argonauts: Comic enrichment and metapoetic aspects(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Llanos, Pablo Martín; Universidad Nacional de CórdobaJust as in the Odyssey the hero on his return journey must resist the charm of the Sirens, in Argonauts the heroes must also overcome them on their return to Hélade. Although bibliographic studies note a change in tone between the Homeric model and the Apollonian text (from sinister to humorous and erotic), we consider that they have not acknowledged its important metapoetic value. According to our reading, the confrontation between Orpheus and the Sirens through song represents the relationship of the new poem with tradition and takes up the meanings and functions of the Odyssey episode, where a clear dispute arises between Odyssey and Iliad, as the classic article by Pucci (1979) shows. In this sense, it is important to highlight not only the tone, but also the presence of a comic diction in the Apollonian episode, which represents the non-epic character of the Sirens defeated by Orpheus. ÍtemAristotle: on the expression “amicably make common use”(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Cárdenas, Luz Gloria; Profesora jubilada del Instituto de Filosofía de la Universidad de AntioquiaIn the framework of discussions on common goods, the common elements, or urban common and their practices, I propose going back to Aristotle, in order to examine his considerations on what he calls “common,” besides the expression “amicably make common use,” used in Politics to refer to the practice that citizens need to undertake in relation to said assets. The aim is to specify their contributions and extract others that may be derived from their reflections and that may enrich the current discussions on this topic. ÍtemThe background of slapstick in Menander’s comedy: throwing objects, hitting, tripping, and comic falls(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Schere, Jimena; Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Universidad Nacional Arturo Jauretche (UNAJ). Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científias y Técnicas (CONICET)Greek literature has a background of slapstick resources (hits, falls, stumbling, throwing objects, and comic injuries) in various genres such as epic, iambic poetry, fable, and comedy. Menander’s comedy, in particular The Misanthrope, makes extensive use of this series of topics of physical humor to characterize the old man Knemon, his central character. In some of his works, slapstick is specifically associated with the -typical grumpy old man character. The Misanthrope clearly takes up the traditional punitive use of the resource, which is dominant in Aristophanes’ comedy, insofar as slapstick aims to punish and transform Knemon’s antisocial behavior. It is not a resource associated with mere entertainment, but it condemns either its victim through the derision of aggression and laughter or its victimizer, when he exerts decontextualized violence, as does the misanthrope. ÍtemFriendship and self-knowledge. On the role of friendship in Greek ethics (1985)(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Gadamert, Hans-Georg; Stein, Timur; Bustamante, Leonel; University of Marburg; Johannes Gutensbergs-Universität; Goethe-UniversitätTranslation of the text “Freundschaft und Selbsterkenntnis. Zur Rolle der Freundschaft in der griechischen Ethik”, a lecture given in Munich on July 12, 1983, originally published in Würzburger Jahrbücher für die Altertumswissenschaft (Beiheft 1, 1985, pp. 25-33) and republished with corrections in volume vi of Gesammelte Werke (1991, pp. 396-406). The present Castilian version is based on this last source. ÍtemAllegorizing the Immaculate Conception: a cycle of Lima tiles and a Cusco sermon(Universidad EAFIT, 2021-12-15) Lozano Vásquez, Andrea; Zalamea Fajardo, Patricia; Universidad de los Andes; Universidad de los AndesThis article aims to show that the classical training received at the Seminary of San Antonio Abad in sixteenth-century viceregal Cusco was decisive in the allegorization processes that are at the foundation of the intellectual project of the azulejo cycle in the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception of the Cathedral of Lima, conceived by Vasco de Contreras y Valverde, and of the panegyric to the Immaculate Conception written by Espinosa Medrano in 1670. Espinosa Medrano’s allegorizing is a particularly American reception of the Classical tradition.