Capítulos en libros (Ciencias del Mar)

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  • Ítem
    Paleogene Magmatism of the Maracaibo Block and its Tectonic SIgnificance
    (2019-08-06) Duque-Trujillo J.; orozco, teresa; Sanchez, Carlos Javier; Cárdenas-Rozo A.L.
    One of the main northern South American geological conundrums has been to establish the tectonic relationship between Caribbean and South American plates during Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. Based on the petrogenetic interpretation of magmatic bodies withi
  • Ítem
    Beach Environmental Quality
    (Springer, 2018-02-07) botero, camilo; Manjarres, Ganivetth; Marquez, Elien; Lopez, Juan E. C.
    Environmental quality is a concept with a fuzzy definition in the literature, since beaches are moving between biocentrism approaches to sanitary parameters. Similarly, the general definition of beach quality helps to consolidate the concept of beach envi
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    Beach Management Practices and Occupation Dynamics: An Agent- Based Modeling Study for the Coastal Town of Nags Head, NC,USA
    (Springer, 2017-12-05) Karanci, Ayse; Velásquez-Montoya L.; Paniagua, J.; Adams, peter; Overton, Margery
    The analysis of interactions between human and natural systems is crucial for sound beach management practices. Those interactions can be simulated via agent-based modeling. Nevertheless, more work is needed to identify and understand model capabilities p
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    The historical, geomorphological evolution of the Colombian littoral zones (Eighteenth Century to Present)
    (Springer Verlag, 2019-01-01) Correa I.D.; Pereira C.I.
    The complex geological framework of Colombia is reflected on its Caribbean and Pacific coasts by the highly contrasting nature of their littoral types, ranging from low-relief deltaic barrier islands and mangrove swamps to steep-rocky reliefs cut by plunging cliffs and wide erosional shore platforms. Relative sea-level changes during the Quaternary and the Holocene are evidenced by morphological features of ancient coastline positions, including emerged marine terraces with coral reefs, cliffs, stacks, and raised beach ridges deposits. An overview of the historical evolution of the Colombian littorals since the end of the eighteenth century evidences a high morphological instability indicated by coastline changes of hundreds of meters and corresponding land losses or gains of tens of km2. These evolutions reflect noticeable variations in the littoral’s sediment budgets, much of them triggered or greatly influenced by human actions. Along the 1700 km-length, micro-tidal Caribbean shores, critical areas are found between the Magdalena delta and the Urabá Gulf, a developed, highly tectonic coastal fringe influenced by mud diapirism and by man-induced changes on its hydrological and sedimentological regimes. Along the meso-macro tidal, 1300 km-length, less populated and engineered Pacific coast (but highly intervened by deforestation and mining), most critical cases are shown by the breaching of its major barrier islands, due to natural factors including coseismic subsidence, tsunamis, and positive sea-level anomalies during El Niño events. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
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    Introducción a los Riesgos Naturales en el Litoral.
    (Manuales CYTED, 2013-01-01) Arango, I.D.C.; Alcántara, Javier; Lacambra, Carmen; Ferreira, Oscar
    Se definen e ilustran los significados de los términos amenazas naturales y antrópicas, peligrosidad de las amenazas, susceptibilidad del territorio, vulnerabilidad, riesgo y catástrofe, entendidos en el marco del espacio físico de las franjas litoral
  • Ítem
    Satellite-Based Estimation of Water Discharge and Runoff in the Magdalena River, Northern Andes of Colombia
    (Springer, 2017-01-01) Escobar, Rogger; Restrepo A, Juan D.; Brakenridge, G. Robert; Kettner, Albert J.
    Satellite-derived data provide important information about river characteristics such as channel geometry, water surface area, water levels, and floodplain extension (Rokni et al. 2015; Schumann and Moller 2015; Smith 1997)
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    II Manual de Métodos en Teledetección Aplicada a la Prevención de Riesgos Naturales en el Litoral.
    (Manuales CYTED, 2013-01-01) Alcántara, Javier; Montoya, Isabel; Arango, I.D.C.
    Este libro introduce los conceptos básicos necesarios para el análisis de los riesgos naturales en las zonas litorales, y a continuación desarrolla las metodologías modernas para la toma y el tratamiento de los datos necesarios para evaluar en detalle
  • Ítem
    Physical and Morphological Changes to Wetlands Induced by Coastal Structures
    (Springer, 2017-07-31) Rivillas, German; Ruiz, Gabriel; Silva, Rodolfo; Mendoza, Edgar; Pacheco, Carlos; Acuña, Guillermo; Rueda, Juan; Felix, Angélica; Pérez-Mesa, J.A.; Pinilla, Carlos
    This document is focused on the establishment of a methodology to assess erosive processes in a coastal wetland. Particularly, it analyses the spit that separates the lagoon from the sea, elaborating a diagnostic process that helps to characterize the eff
  • Ítem
    Sediment transfers from the Andes of Colombia during the anthropocene
    (Springer Verlag, 2019-01-01) Restrepo J.D.
    This chapter reviews data, models, and analyses on Anthropocene-impacted sediment fluxes in the Andes of Colombia and provides examples on how direct human alteration has increased sediment flux during the last decades. Firstly, it describes the context of the northern Andes in terms of sediment production within the whole Andes Cordillera. Secondly, it presents a summary of major land cover changes witnessed in the region from 8000 years ago to the beginning of large-scale land transformation that occurred in Colombia during the last three decades and analyzes major human-induced drivers of change. Also, trends in sediment load during the 1980–2010 period are documented. Finally, it compares modern and prehuman conditions of sediment flux by using some applied models in global and Colombian rivers. An inventory of per capita anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) from 8 ka toAD 2000 for the Andes of Colombia reveals that a nearly pristine environment existed until 3 ka. Two thousand years later, byAD 1, ALCC only slightly increases. FromAD 1500 toAD 1600, the ALCC scenarios show a decrease in anthropogenic land use in the Andes, as the indigenous populations of the Americas succumbed to disease and war brought by European explorers and colonists. The collapse of large precontact populations with advanced agriculture, which were especially concentrated in Mesoamerica and the Andes, led to high amounts of land abandonment. The low levels of ALCC shown atAD 1500 are almost entirely abandoned 100 years after conquest. ByAD 1687, anthropogenic land use in the Andes accelerated with the spread of colonies and nations founded by Europeans. The Americas only start to result in substantial amounts of ALCC emissions during the last centuries. Further studies on historical patterns and drivers of landscape change in Colombia since 1500 confirm that land conversion in the Andes started five centuries ago. The transformed area in the Andean region rose from 15 M ha in 1500 to 42 M ha in 2000. During the last two centuries, the annual rate of forest-transformed area increased two orders of magnitude, from 4330 ha y-1 in 1800 to 171,190 ha y-1 in 2000. By the year 2000, 80% of the natural vegetation in the Andes was cleared, with 20% remaining as scattered remnants. An assumed value of 30% was cleared in preconquest agricultural landscapes (before 1500), increasing to 80% in 2000. Demographic impacts of colonization and the introduction of cattle were major drivers of change. Findings of land use and sediment load trends indicate that the extent of erosion within the Andes of Colombia has severely increased over the last 30 years. For example, the last decade has been a period of increased pulses in sediment transport and rates of deforestation as seen by the statistical significant trends in load and by a marked increase of 241% in forest clearance. As a whole, the Andean drainage basins have witnessed an increase in erosion rates of 33%, from 550 t km-2 y-1 before 2000 to 710 t km-2 y-1 for the 2000–2010 period. Levels of sediment transport are one order of magnitude higher in modern times than during prehuman conditions. The differences between prehuman and modern sediment load in South American rivers were more pronounced for the Magdalena River, with a difference ranging between -100 and -150 Mt. y-1. Thus, during pristine conditions and according to the observed total load of the Magdalena, 184 Mt. y-1, the Magdalena could have had an annual sediment load between 34 and 84 Mt. y-1 during prehuman times. Further results indicate that 35% of the sediment load in the Colombian Andes is due to deforestation; 1690 Mt. of sediments were produced due to forest clearance over the last three decades. Much of the river catchments (79%) are under severe erosional conditions due in part to the clearance of more than 80% natural forest during the last 500 years. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
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    Paleogene magmatism of the Maracaibo Block and its tectonic significance
    (Springer Verlag, 2019-01-01) Duque-Trujillo J.F.; Orozco-Esquivel T.; Sánchez C.J.; Cárdenas-Rozo A.L.
    One of the main northern South American geological conundrums has been to establish the tectonic relationship between Caribbean and South American plates during Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. Based on the petrogenetic interpretation of magmatic bodies within the Maracaibo block, we suggest an interplay between subduction and overthrusting tectonics in the northern part of South America during the Cenozoic. Our data show that the subduction of the Caribbean Plate beneath the South American Plate started around 65 million years ago, as is evidenced by the presence of trondhjemitic intrusions in the Santa Marta Province. Then, after a ca. 5-million-year magmatic gap, the evolution of this subduction system allowed the formation of a magmatic arc represented by the calc-alkaline Santa Marta Batholith (~56–49 Ma) and Parashi Pluton (51–47 Ma). For the interval between 50 and 25 million years, our data and compiled data point to a reduction in the tectonic activity, which is supported by relatively slow rates of cooling and uplifting in the Maracaibo block. Finally, for the period since the early Miocene, the reported uplift data, subsidence rates, and stratigraphic discordances indicate a differential uplift of the Maracaibo block, decreasing from the northwestern tip (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta) toward the southeast (Merida Andes) and suggesting that this tectonic “reactivation” is the result of dominant overthrusting tectonics. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
  • Ítem
    The Arboletes -Punta Rey Littoral, Southern Caribbean Coast
    (Springer International Publishing, 2015-12-19) Arango, I.D.C.; Paniagua, Juan F.
    The Arboletes -Punta Rey littoral is a 5.5-km-long stretch of coast located at the southern Caribbean coast of Colombia, 80 km by car (paved road) to Montería . Geologically, it is located at terrains of the Sinú folded belt, a tectonically active...
  • Ítem
    The Historical, Geomorphological Evolution of the Colombian Littoral Zones ( Eighteenth Century to present)
    (Springer, 2019-01-01) Correa I.D.; Lopez, Juan E. C.
    The complex geological framework of Colombia is reflected on its Caribbean and Pacific coasts by the highly contrasting nature of their littoral types, ranging from low-relief deltaic barrier islands and mangrove swamps to steep-rocky reliefs cut by plung
  • Ítem
    Caribbean Coast of Colombia
    (Springer Netherlands, 2010-01-01) Arango, I.D.C.; Morton, Robert
  • Ítem
    Postglacial North Pacific
    (Elsevier, 2013-01-01) Ignacio Martinez, J.
    Postglacial North Pacific paleoceanography is dominated by the ENSO system, which can acquire for centuries to thousands of years an El Niño-like or a La Niña-like dominant state. A La Niña-like (negative Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO)) to El Niño-like (positive PDO) state evolved from the early-middle to the late Holocene. Accordingly, the ITCZ changed from a northern to a southern location, thus reducing the strength of the Kuroshio and California Currents. In addition to this pattern, there are regional differences imposed by the interaction between the monsoons in the western Pacific and the PDO in the northeastern Pacific. Evidence is becoming robust for teleconnections between the Asian monsoons, the California Current, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, modulated by solar insolation and ice sheet dynamics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.