Gobernar, Vol. 03, Núm. 05 (2019)

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  • Ítem
    Volunteering in Latin America: an approach to the differences between countries
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2019-12-06) López Concepción, Arelys; Gil Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Saz, Isabel; Universidad de Sancti Spíritus “José Martí Pérez”, Cuba; Universidad de Zaragoza, España
    Volunteering is a vehicle for communitarian participation in a way that enriches the whole society and volunteers. The World Value Survey data (WVS, 2010- 2014) show that in Latin America the percentage of volunteers varies significantly from one country to another, such that in Colombia 65% carry out volunteer activities, compared to 23% of Ecuador. While volunteering has been widely studied in AngloSaxon and European countries, there are hardly any studies for Latin America. The main contribution of this work lies precisely in expanding the knowledge of the factors that influence the decision to volunteer in the different countries of Latin America. The WVS data allow us to carry out an analysis that controls two levels of aggregation: individual and country. Our results highlight the positive relationship between income and education with affiliation and participation in the third sector. Since it is found that volunteering is a tool to improve the human capital and social capital of citizens, it would be desirable to establish public interventions that encourage volunteering among people with fewer resources or at risk of exclusion.
  • Ítem
    Proposal of indicators to measure and evaluate governance
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2019-12-07) Aguirre-Sala, Jorge Francisco; Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León-México
    The objective of this article is to propose indicators and an index to measure and evaluate the quality of governance. To this end, it answers the research questions: what is governance? How does it differ from governability and open government? , what should be measured by governance and how should it be measured? The research design proposes a literature review to distinguish between governability, open government and governance and establish what and how governance is measured. The methodology establishes the conditions of the indicators (declarations of their purpose, description, relevance, formula (s), unit of measurement, sources, periodicity and complementary information of a qualitative nature) and indexes from the public governance approach. The main finding consists of the formulas of the indicators and their aggregation in a governance index, based on their characterization and distinction with governability. The originality and value of this contribution endows the agencies, projects and social and political agents involved in the definition and execution of public policies with an evaluation instrument replicable in any democracy. The social implications of having governance indicators impact on the design of government plans and programs with a view to increasing democratic quality.
  • Ítem
    The participation of the actors in the conception of international development projects. The case of a Canada - Colombia project
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2019-12-05) Navarro-Flores, Olga; Hernando Sánchez, Luis; Université du Québec à Montréal-UQÀM
    International Development Projects (IDPs) are initiatives that seek to promote development within a context of power asymmetry, multiple and diverse actors, and ambitious objectives. The project under study seeks to improve the living conditions of young people in a mining region in Colombia, through a twofold objective: ecological and social, and the objective is to analyze the participation of the actors in the design phase of the project, in order to deepen the understanding of their dynamics in that phase and within the project management. It is based on a socio-political perspective and mobilizes concepts such as the North-South partnership, the Actor Network Theory (ANT), and the interaction of global and local networks. Using analytical induction and abduction strategies, the analysis yields results that include two levels of participation, from the conception to the implementation of the project, thus contributing to achieving short- and long-term development goals.
  • Ítem
    NPOs and their Stakeholders’ Psychological Contracts: The Value of Implicit Expectations in Bolivia
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2019-12-02) Barreal, Maria Renee; Pepermans, Roland; Dooms, Michael; Vrije Universiteit Brussel
    Managing non-profit organizations (NPOs) in developing countries constitutes a challenge due to the intrinsic hardship of their missions, and the pressure of balancing their stakeholder’s interests and needs. Beyond the explicit challenges NPOs face (e.g., attracting volunteers, retaining employees, accounting to donors), we tackle the implicit obligations and returns that volunteers, employees, and donors hold towards an NPO. By introducing the concept of Stakeholder Psychological Contracts (SPC) and its three currencies (relational, transactional and ideological), we identify how each creates value for these stakeholders in a different way, using data from 409 respondents, representing 7 Bolivian NPOs. Despite the high levels of satisfaction and engagement among respondents, currencies such as Transactional Obligations in volunteers or Relational Returns in donors did not create substantial value. As predicted, Ideological returns showed relevance for all groups. However, in the case of employees, this currency shows a negative impact on satisfaction with the NPO, and engagement with the cause has no influence on their turnover intentions, as only satisfaction with the organization mediates in their intention to quit. We conclude that SPCs are a valuable concept for NPO managers when it comes to triggering engagement and satisfaction for each stakeholder group.
  • Ítem
    Public financing and institutional isomorphism in Civil Society Organizations in Yucatán, México
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2019-12-01) Aguilera Troncoso, Apocalipsis Raquel; Hernández Estrada, Mauricio; “Jade” Propuestas Sociales y Alternativas al Desarrollo
    This paper analyzes the public funding at Federal and State level granted to Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) of Yucatan, Mexico during the period 2006-2017. Based on the neo-institutional approach and the concept of institutional isomorphism are addressed patterns of distribution in the allocation of resources, the characteristics of CSOs and the amounts reported that allow knowing interaction between CSOs with the State and Federal government. The descriptive empirical study answers the question of what is the government's behavior in the allocation of Federal and State public resources to CSOs in Yucatan? and it focuses on the analysis of the information provided by the Federal Register of CSOs, as well as requests for public information based on the Right to Access to Public Information in Mexico. Findings about four types of isomorphisms mentioned by literature are addressed: thematic, legal, political and professionalizing. Related to findings in amounts, first, the concentration of 40% of the total amount granted at the federal level by the Ministry of Education (SEP) to the Pro-Education Board of Adults of the State of Yucatan, an organization identified as a “Non-Governmental Government Organization”, second, the state government with 43% of the total amount reported in the period granted from the Ministry of Rural Development (SEDER), a unit focused on increasing the productivity of sectors such as agriculture, livestock, fishing and aquaculture. This research contributes to the discussion and knowledge about the behavior of public financing at the subnational level directed to CSOs - not explored in Mexico - under a theoretical framework relevant to the third sector.
  • Ítem
    Social capital and sustainability in the third sector
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2019-12-04) Zenck, Maria del Carmen; Ríos Rivera, Ingrid; Rodríguez Zapatero, Maribel; Universidad Casa Grande UCG, Guayaquil, Ecuador; Universidad de Córdoba UCO, Córdoba, España
    Within the profile of social enterprise that characterizes non-profit organizations that work in health and welfare areas, institutional sustainability suggests the use of their social capital, networks, relationships and links with various sectors to maintain access and the levels of service to the most vulnerable population, in a context of state regulation, uncertainty in markets and scarce resources. The objective of this research is to analyze management processes to expand coverage and diversify in health care services of an Ecuadorian civil society organization in response to demand for specialized services for people with physical and sensorial limitations, within a national and international regulatory framework; know what local support mechanisms are used, and identify the links and intersectoral networks that contribute to the optimization of resources and the sustainability of social services. Information gathering instruments include documentary analysis, semistructured interviews with collaborators and beneficiaries, as well as a questionnaire applied to external and internal audiences to triangulate data on social capital. The results allow identifying the characteristics of the social enterprise in the market of health services and integral care, the influence of accumulated social capital in the organization and the search for market income as a source of opportunities and challenges for innovation social in Ecuador. It seeks to rescue the entrepreneurial practice of the third sector, the need for public policies that support and encourage them; and enrich the debate on the role of social enterprise in the region and its potential to provide timely services, greater scope and impact.
  • Ítem
    Social innovation process in Ecuadorian civil society organizations (CSOs): progress and challenges
    (Universidad EAFIT, 2019-12-03) Rivera, Jairo; Araque, Wilson; Flor, Eulalia; Universidad Andina Simón Bolívar, Sede Ecuador
    This article analyzes the evolution and current state of the social innovation process in Ecuadorian Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) during the last decade. Within a dynamic environment, social innovation practices of CSOs in the country are examined and two emblematic experiences are detailed. The methodology of the study includes primary information from two analysis tables, two workshops and in-depth interviews with representatives of CSOs working in Ecuador. Among the main results of the article is that there are several actions that CSOs have been developing in the field of social innovation, partly to guarantee their survival and sustainability, also to respond, in a more adequate way, to social changes characterized by increasing inequalities and fulfill its objective of improving the living conditions of the most vulnerable sectors of society and thus guarantee the country's sustainable development.