The Techniques for Overcoming Depression Questionnaire: Mokken Scale Analysis, Reliability, and Concurrent Validity in Depressed Cardiac Patients



Título de la revista

ISSN de la revista

Título del volumen




The Techniques for Overcoming Depression (TOD) questionnaire assesses the frequency with which patients being treated for depression use cognitive-behavioral techniques in daily life. This study examined its latent structure, reliability and concurrent validity in depressed cardiac patients. The TOD was administered at the initial and final treatment sessions in three trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) (n = 260) for depression in cardiac patients. Mokken scaling was used to determine its dimensionality. The TOD is unidimensional in depressed cardiac patients, both at the initial evaluation (H = .46) and the end of treatment (H = .47). It is sensitive to change and the total score correlates with therapist ratings of the patient’s socialization to CBT (r = .40, p < .05), homework adherence (r = .36, p < .05), and use of cognitive-behavioral techniques (r = .51, p < .01). TOD scores were associated with post-treatment depression scores in two of the trials (p < .01 in both analyses). The TOD is a unidimensional, reliable, valid, and clinically informative measure of self-reported use of cognitive-behavioral techniques for overcoming depression in cardiac patients. Studies of the TOD in other depressed patient populations are needed. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Palabras clave

antidepressant agent, adult, Article, cardiac patient, cognitive behavioral therapy, concurrent validity, coronary artery bypass graft, Cronbach alpha coefficient, depression assessment, female, heart failure, human, ischemic heart disease, major clinical study, major depression, male, middle aged, Mokken scale, patient compliance, rating scale, self report, socialization, Techniques for Overcoming Depression questionnaire, treatment resistant depression